VRK3-mediated nuclear localization of HSP70 prevents glutamate excitotoxicity-induced apoptosis and A beta accumulation via enhancement of ERK phosphatase VHR activity
- VRK3-mediated nuclear localization of HSP70 prevents glutamate excitotoxicity-induced apoptosis and A beta accumulation via enhancement of ERK phosphatase VHR activity
- Haengjin Song; Wanil Kim; Sung-Hoon Kim; Kyong-Tai Kim
- Date Issued
- NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP
- Most of neurodegenerative disorders are associated with protein aggregation. Glutamate-induced excitotoxicity and persistent extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activation are also implicated in neurodegenerative diseases. Here, we found that vaccinia-related kinase 3 (VRK3) facilitates nuclear localization of glutamate-induced heat shock protein 70 (HSP70). Nuclear HSP70 leads to enhancement of vaccinia H1-related phosphatase (VHR) activity via protein-protein interaction rather than its molecular chaperone activity, thereby suppressing excessive ERK activation. Moreover, glutamate-induced ERK activation stimulates the expression of HSP70 and VRK3 at the transcriptional level. Downregulation of either VRK3 or HSP70 rendered cells vulnerable to glutamate-induced apoptosis. Overexpression of HSP70 fused to a nuclear localization signal attenuated apoptosis more than HSP70 alone. The importance of nuclear localization of HSP70 in the negative regulation of glutamate-induced ERK activation was further confirmed in VRK3-deficient neurons. Importantly, we showed a positive correlation between levels of VRK3 and HSP70 in the progression of Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases in humans, and neurons with HSP70 nuclear localization exhibited less A beta accumulation in brains from patients with Alzheimer's disease. Therefore, HSP70 and VRK3 could potentially serve as diagnostic and therapeutic targets in neurodegenerative diseases.
- Article Type
- SCIENTIFIC REPORTS, vol. 6, 2016-12-12
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