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기술집약도에 따른 국내 제조업의 기술혁신 패턴 분석

기술집약도에 따른 국내 제조업의 기술혁신 패턴 분석
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This paper attempts to identify the patterns of technological innovation in Korea's manufacturing sector according to the technology intensity, and takes a close look at their similarities and differences between high and low technologies. Korean manufacturing sectors are divided into four classes: (ⅰ) high technology, (ⅱ) medium-high technology, (ⅲ) medium-low technology and (ⅳ) low technology according to the typology of industrial sectors proposed by OECD(Hatzichronoglou, 1997). This classification is based on the direct and indirect R&D intensity, including the R&D expenditure embodied in intermediates and capital goods purchased. In this paper, patterns of technological innovation is specified by the following five dimensions: (ⅰ) characteristics of innovation activities, (ⅱ) sources of technology for innovation, (ⅲ) means of appropriation, (ⅳ) cumulativeness of technological knowledge and (ⅴ) effects of innovation. This was determined on the basis of the concept of technological regime(Malerba and Orsenigo, 1993
1997) and the taxonomy of technical change(Pavitt, 1984). Korea Innovation Survey (KIS 2008) data were used for empirical analysis. For five dimensions of innovation patterns, four sectors classified by technology intensity were examined and compared with one another using χ2 test and one-way ANOVA. The result of empirical analysis shows that high technology sector (aerospace, computers and office machinery, electronics-communication devices, pharmaceuticals) in Korea is shaped by the science-based firms described by Pavitt. However, low technology sector (paper and printing, textile and clothing, food and beverages, wood and furniture) reflects only some characteristics of supplier-dominated firms. Instead, low technology sector turned out to have more similarities with science-based firms in principal aspects of innovation patterns such as major sources of technology. It represents that low technology industry in Korea has a tendency to follow the innovation patterns of high technology. This is inconsistent result with the empirical studies that have been conducted overseas. In order to better understand the nature of innovation which is peculiar to Korea, further studies on innovation patterns of low and medium technology sectors in Korea would be required.
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